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The package was developed within the Synbreed project for synergistic plant and animal breeding ( It contains a collection of functions required for genomic prediction in both plant and animal breeding. This covers data processing, data visualization and analysis. All functions are embedded within the framework of a single, unified data object. The implementation is flexible with respect to a wide range of data formats. This research was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) within the AgroClustEr Synbreed - Synergistic plant and animal breeding (FKZ 0315528A).


Fit pedigree-based mixed-effects models.


Pedigree related functions


QTL mapping in a mixed model framework with separate detection and localization stages. The first stage detects the number of QTL on each chromosome based on the genetic variation due to grouped markers on the chromosome; the second stage uses this information to determine the most likely QTL positions. The mixed model can accommodate general fixed and random effects, including spatial effects in field trials and pedigree effects. Applicable to backcrosses, doubled haploids, recombinant inbred lines, F2 intercrosses, and association mapping populations.


Haplin performs a genetic association analysis of case-parent triad (trio) data with multiple markers. It can also incorporate complete or incomplete control triads, for instance independent control children. Estimation is based on haplotypes, for instance SNP haplotypes, even though phase is not known from the genetic data. Haplin estimates relative risk (RR + and p-value associated with each haplotype. It uses maximum likelihood estimation to make optimal use of data from triads with missing genotypic data, for instance if some SNPs has not been typed for some individuals. Haplin also allows estimation of effects of maternal haplotypes and parent-of-origin effects, particularly appropriate in perinatal epidemiology. Haplin allows special models, like X-inactivation, to be fitted on the X-chromosome.


This package integrates sophisticated mixed modelling methods with a whole genome approach to detecting significant QTL in linkage maps.


Phylogenetic analysis in R (Estimation of phylogenetic trees and networks using Maximum Likelihood, Maximum Parsimony, Distance methods & Hadamard conjugation)


ape provides functions for reading, writing, plotting, and manipulating phylogenetic trees, analyses of comparative data in a phylogenetic framework, ancestral character analyses, analyses of diversification and macroevolution, computing distances from allelic and nucleotide data, reading and writing nucleotide sequences, and several tools such as Mantel's test, generalized skyline plots, graphical exploration of phylogenetic data (alex, trex, kronoviz), estimation of absolute evolutionary rates and clock-like trees using mean path lengths and penalized likelihood. Phylogeny estimation can be done with the NJ, BIONJ, ME, MVR, SDM, and triangle methods, and several methods handling incomplete distance matrices (NJ*, BIONJ*, MVR*, and the corresponding triangle method). Some functions call external applications (PhyML, Clustal, T-Coffee, Muscle) whose results are returned into R.


A collection of utilities for biodiversity data. Includes the simulation of ecological drift under Hubbell's Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity, and the calculation of various diagnostics such as Preston curves. Now includes functionality provided by Francois Munoz and Andrea Manica.


Transmission/disequilibrium tests for extended marker haplotypes