# amova {ade4}

### Description

The analysis of molecular variance tests the differences among population and/or groups of populations in a way similar to ANOVA. It includes evolutionary distances among alleles.

### Usage

amova(samples, distances, structures) ## S3 method for class 'amova': print((x, full = FALSE, ...))

### Arguments

- samples
- a data frame with haplotypes (or genotypes) as rows, populations as columns and abundance as entries
- distances
- an object of class
`dist`

computed from Euclidean distance. If`distances`

is null, equidistances are used. - structures
- a data frame containing, in the jth row and the kth column, the name of the group of level k to which the jth population belongs
- x
- an object of class
`amova`

- full
- a logical value indicating whether the original data ('distances', 'samples', 'structures') should be printed
- ...
- further arguments passed to or from other methods

### Values

Returns a list of class `amova`

- call
- call
- results
- a data frame with the degrees of freedom, the sums of squares, and the mean squares. Rows represent levels of variability.
- componentsofcovariance
- a data frame containing the components of covariance and their contribution to the total covariance
- statphi
- a data frame containing the phi-statistics

### References

Excoffier, L., Smouse, P.E. and Quattro, J.M. (1992) Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes: application to human mitochondrial DNA restriction data. *Genetics*, **131**, 479--491.

### See Also

`randtest.amova`

### Examples

Documentation reproduced from package ade4, version 1.7-3. License: GPL (>= 2)