# all {base}

### Description

Given a set of logical vectors, are all of the values true?

### Usage

all(..., na.rm = FALSE)

### Arguments

- ...
- zero or more logical vectors. Other objects of zero length are ignored, and the rest are coerced to logical ignoring any class.
- na.rm
- logical. If true
`NA`

values are removed before the result is computed.

### Details

This is a generic function: methods can be defined for it directly or via the `Summary`

group generic. For this to work properly, the arguments `...`

should be unnamed, and dispatch is on the first argument.

Coercion of types other than integer (raw, double, complex, character, list) gives a warning as this is often unintentional.

This is a primitive function.

### Values

The value is a logical vector of length one.

Let `x`

denote the concatenation of all the logical vectors in `...`

(after coercion), after removing `NA`

s if requested by `na.rm = TRUE`

.

The value returned is `TRUE`

if all of the values in `x`

are `TRUE`

(including if there are no values), and `FALSE`

if at least one of the values in `x`

is `FALSE`

. Otherwise the value is `NA`

(which can only occur if `na.rm = FALSE`

and `...`

contains no `FALSE`

values and at least one `NA`

value).

### S4 methods

This is part of the S4 `Summary`

group generic. Methods for it must use the signature `x, ..., na.rm`

.

### References

Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) *The New S Language*. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

### Note

That `all(logical(0))`

is true is a useful convention: it ensures that

all(all(x), all(y)) == all(x, y)

even if `x`

has length zero.

### Examples

Documentation reproduced from R 3.0.2. License: GPL-2.