cat(... , file = "", sep = " ", fill = FALSE, labels = NULL, append = FALSE)
- R objects (see ‘Details’ for the types of objects allowed).
- A connection, or a character string naming the file to print to. If
catprints to the standard output connection, the console unless redirected by
- a character vector of strings to append after each element.
- a logical or (positive) numeric controlling how the output is broken into successive lines. If
FALSE(default), only newlines created explicitly by " " are printed. Otherwise, the output is broken into lines with print width equal to the option
TRUE, or the value of
fillif this is numeric. Non-positive
fillvalues are ignored, with a warning.
- character vector of labels for the lines printed. Ignored if
- logical. Only used if the argument
fileis the name of file (and not a connection or
TRUEoutput will be appended to
file; otherwise, it will overwrite the contents of
cat is useful for producing output in user-defined functions. It converts its arguments to character vectors, concatenates them to a single character vector, appends the given
sep = string(s) to each element and then outputs them.
No linefeeds are output unless explicitly requested by " " or if generated by filling (if argument
TRUE or numeric).
file is a connection and open for writing it is written from its current position. If it is not open, it is opened for the duration of the call in
"wt" mode and then closed again.
Currently only atomic vectors and names are handled, together with
NULL and other zero-length objects (which produce no output). Character strings are output ‘as is’ (unlike
print.default which escapes non-printable characters and backslash --- use
encodeString if you want to output encoded strings using
cat). Other types of R object should be converted (e.g. by
format) before being passed to
cat. That includes factors, which are output as integer vectors.
cat converts numeric/complex elements in the same way as
as.character which is used by the S equivalent), so
"scipen" are relevant. However, it uses the minimum field width necessary for each element, rather than the same field width for all elements.
Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.
If any element of
sep contains a newline character, it is treated as a vector of terminators rather than separators, an element being output after every vector element and a newline after the last. Entries are recycled as needed.
Documentation reproduced from R 3.0.2. License: GPL-2.