Format an R object for pretty printing.
format(x, ...) ## S3 method for class 'default': format((x, trim = FALSE, digits = NULL, nsmall = 0L, justify = c("left", "right", "centre", "none"), width = NULL, na.encode = TRUE, scientific = NA, big.mark = "", big.interval = 3L, small.mark = "", small.interval = 5L, decimal.mark = ".", zero.print = NULL, drop0trailing = FALSE, ...)) ## S3 method for class 'data.frame': format((x, ..., justify = "none")) ## S3 method for class 'factor': format((x, ...)) ## S3 method for class 'AsIs': format((x, width = 12, ...))
- any R object (conceptually); typically numeric.
- logical; if
FALSE, logical, numeric and complex values are right-justified to a common width: if
TRUEthe leading blanks for justification are suppressed.
- how many significant digits are to be used for numeric and complex
x. The default,
getOption("digits"). This is a suggestion: enough decimal places will be used so that the smallest (in magnitude) number has this many significant digits, and also to satisfy
nsmall. (For the interpretation for complex numbers see
- the minimum number of digits to the right of the decimal point in formatting real/complex numbers in non-scientific formats. Allowed values are
0 <= nsmall <= 20.
- should a character vector be left-justified (the default), right-justified, centred or left alone.
defaultmethod: the minimum field width or
AsIsmethod: the maximum field width for non-character objects.
NULLcorresponds to the default 12.
- logical: should
NAstrings be encoded? Note this only applies to elements of character vectors, not to numerical or logical
NAs, which are always encoded as
- Either a logical specifying whether elements of a real or complex vector should be encoded in scientific format, or an integer penalty (see
options("scipen")). Missing values correspond to the current default penalty.
- further arguments passed to or from other methods.
- big.mark, big.interval, small.mark,
small.interval, decimal.mark, zero.print, drop0trailing
- used for prettying (longish) decimal sequences, passed to
prettyNum: that help page explains the details.
format is a generic function. Apart from the methods described here there are methods for dates (see
format.Date), date-times (see
format.POSIXct)) and for other classes such as
format.data.frame formats the data frame column by column, applying the appropriate method of
format for each column. Methods for columns are often similar to
as.character but offer more control. Matrix and data-frame columns will be converted to separate columns in the result, and character columns (normally all) will be given class
format.factor converts the factor to a character vector and then calls the default method (and so
format.AsIs deals with columns of complicated objects that have been extracted from a data frame. Character objects are passed to the default method (and so
width does not apply). Otherwise it calls
toString to convert the object to character (if a vector or list, element by element) and then right-justifies the result.
Justification for character vectors (and objects converted to character vectors by their methods) is done on display width (see
nchar), taking double-width characters and the rendering of special characters (as escape sequences, including escaping backslash but not double quote: see
print.default) into account. Thus the width is as displayed by
print(quote = FALSE) and not as displayed by
cat. Character strings are padded with blanks to the display width of the widest. (If
na.encode = FALSE missing character strings are not included in the width computations and are not encoded.)
Numeric vectors are encoded with the minimum number of decimal places needed to display all the elements to at least the
digits significant digits. However, if all the elements then have trailing zeroes, the number of decimal places is reduced until
nsmall is reached or at least one element has a non-zero final digit; see also the argument documentation for
small.* etc, above. See the note in
digits >= 16.
Raw vectors are converted to their 2-digit hexadecimal representation by
An object of similar structure to
x containing character representations of the elements of the first argument
x in a common format, and in the current locale's encoding.
For character, numeric, complex or factor
x, dims and dimnames are preserved on matrices/arrays and names on vectors: no other attributes are copied.
x is a list, the result is a character vector obtained by applying
format.default(x, ...) to each element of the list (after
unlisting elements which are themselves lists), and then collapsing the result for each element with
paste(collapse = ", "). The defaults in this case are
trim = TRUE, justify = "none" since one does not usually want alignment in the collapsed strings.
Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.
format.info indicates how an atomic vector would be formatted.
format(1:10) format(1:10, trim = TRUE) zz <- data.frame("(row names)"= c("aaaaa", "b"), check.names = FALSE) format(zz) format(zz, justify = "left") ## use of nsmall format(13.7) format(13.7, nsmall = 3) format(c(6.0, 13.1), digits = 2) format(c(6.0, 13.1), digits = 2, nsmall = 1) ## use of scientific format(2^31-1) format(2^31-1, scientific = TRUE) ## a list z <- list(a = letters[1:3], b = (-pi+0i)^((-2:2)/2), c = c(1,10,100,1000), d = c("a", "longer", "character", "string"), q = quote( a + b ), e = expression(1+x)) ## can you find the "2" small differences? (f1 <- format(z, digits = 2)) (f2 <- format(z, digits = 2, justify = "left", trim = FALSE)) f1 == f2 ## 2 FALSE, 4 TRUE
Documentation reproduced from R 3.0.2. License: GPL-2.