# sunflowerplot {graphics}

### Description

Multiple points are plotted as ‘sunflowers’ with multiple leaves (‘petals’) such that overplotting is visualized instead of accidental and invisible.

### Usage

sunflowerplot(x, ...) ## S3 method for class 'default': sunflowerplot((x, y = NULL, number, log = "", digits = 6, xlab = NULL, ylab = NULL, xlim = NULL, ylim = NULL, add = FALSE, rotate = FALSE, pch = 16, cex = 0.8, cex.fact = 1.5, col = par("col"), bg = NA, size = 1/8, seg.col = 2, seg.lwd = 1.5, ...)) ## S3 method for class 'formula': sunflowerplot((formula, data = NULL, xlab = NULL, ylab = NULL, ..., subset, na.action = NULL))

### Arguments

- x
- numeric vector of
`x`

-coordinates of length`n`

, say, or another valid plotting structure, as for`plot.default`

, see also`xy.coords`

. - y
- numeric vector of
`y`

-coordinates of length`n`

. - number
- integer vector of length
`n`

.`number[i]`

= number of replicates for`(x[i], y[i])`

, may be 0.

Default (`missing(number)`

): compute the exact multiplicity of the points`x[], y[]`

, via`xyTable()`

. - log
- character indicating log coordinate scale, see
`plot.default`

. - digits
- when
`number`

is computed (i.e., not specified),`x`

and`y`

are rounded to`digits`

significant digits before multiplicities are computed. - xlab, ylab
- character label for x-, or y-axis, respectively.
- xlim, ylim
`numeric(2)`

limiting the extents of the x-, or y-axis.- add
- logical; should the plot be added on a previous one ? Default is
`FALSE`

. - rotate
- logical; if
`TRUE`

, randomly rotate the sunflowers (preventing artefacts). - pch
- plotting character to be used for points (
`number[i]==1`

) and center of sunflowers. - cex
- numeric; character size expansion of center points (s.
`pch`

). - cex.fact
- numeric
*shrinking*factor to be used for the center points*when there are flower leaves*, i.e.,`cex / cex.fact`

is used for these. - col, bg
- colors for the plot symbols, passed to
`plot.default`

. - size
- of sunflower leaves in inches, 1[in] := 2.54[cm]. Default: 1/8\", approximately 3.2mm.
- seg.col
- color to be used for the
**seg**ments which make the sunflowers leaves, see`par(col=)`

;`col = "gold"`

reminds of real sunflowers. - seg.lwd
- numeric; the line width for the leaves' segments.
- ...
- further arguments to
`plot`

[if`add = FALSE`

], or to be passed to or from another method. - formula
- a
`formula`

, such as`y ~ x`

. - data
- a data.frame (or list) from which the variables in
`formula`

should be taken. - subset
- an optional vector specifying a subset of observations to be used in the fitting process.
- na.action
- a function which indicates what should happen when the data contain
`NA`

s. The default is to ignore case with missing values.

### Details

This is a generic function with default and formula methods.

For `number[i] == 1`

, a (slightly enlarged) usual plotting symbol (`pch`

) is drawn. For `number[i] > 1`

, a small plotting symbol is drawn and `number[i]`

equi-angular ‘rays’ emanate from it.

If `rotate = TRUE`

and `number[i] >= 2`

, a random direction is chosen (instead of the y-axis) for the first ray. The goal is to `jitter`

the orientations of the sunflowers in order to prevent artefactual visual impressions.

### Values

A list with three components of same length,

Use `xyTable()`

(from package grDevices) if you are only interested in this return value.

- x
- x coordinates
- y
- y coordinates
- number
- number

### Side Effects

A scatter plot is drawn with ‘sunflowers’ as symbols.

### References

Chambers, J. M., Cleveland, W. S., Kleiner, B. and Tukey, P. A. (1983) *Graphical Methods for Data Analysis.* Wadsworth.

Schilling, M. F. and Watkins, A. E. (1994) A suggestion for sunflower plots. *The American Statistician*, **48**, 303--305.

Murrell, P. (2005) *R Graphics*. Chapman & Hall/CRC Press.

### Examples

require(stats) require(grDevices) ## 'number' is computed automatically: sunflowerplot(iris[, 3:4]) ## Imitating Chambers et al., p.109, closely: sunflowerplot(iris[, 3:4], cex = .2, cex.fact = 1, size = .035, seg.lwd = .8) ## or sunflowerplot(Petal.Width ~ Petal.Length, data = iris, cex = .2, cex.fact = 1, size = .035, seg.lwd = .8) sunflowerplot(x = sort(2*round(rnorm(100))), y = round(rnorm(100), 0), main = "Sunflower Plot of Rounded N(0,1)") ## Similarly using a "xyTable" argument: xyT <- xyTable(x = sort(2*round(rnorm(100))), y = round(rnorm(100), 0), digits = 3) utils::str(xyT, vec.len = 20) sunflowerplot(xyT, main = "2nd Sunflower Plot of Rounded N(0,1)") ## A 'marked point process' {explicit 'number' argument}: sunflowerplot(rnorm(100), rnorm(100), number = rpois(n = 100, lambda = 2), main = "Sunflower plot (marked point process)", rotate = TRUE, col = "blue4")

Documentation reproduced from R 3.0.2. License: GPL-2.