# B_04_qqmath {lattice}

### Description

Draw quantile-Quantile plots of a sample against a theoretical distribution, possibly conditioned on other variables.

### Usage

qqmath(x, data, ...) ## S3 method for class 'formula': qqmath((x, data, allow.multiple = is.null(groups) || outer, outer = !is.null(groups), distribution = qnorm, f.value = NULL, auto.key = FALSE, aspect = "fill", panel = lattice.getOption("panel.qqmath"), prepanel = NULL, scales, strip, groups, xlab, xlim, ylab, ylim, drop.unused.levels = lattice.getOption("drop.unused.levels"), ..., lattice.options = NULL, default.scales = list(), default.prepanel = lattice.getOption("prepanel.default.qqmath"), subscripts, subset)) ## S3 method for class 'numeric': qqmath((x, data = NULL, ylab, ...))

### Arguments

- x
- The object on which method dispatch is carried out.
For the

`"formula"`

method,`x`

should be a formula of the form`~ x | g1 * g2 * ...`

, where`x`

should be a numeric variable. For the`"numeric"`

method,`x`

should be a numeric vector. - data
- For the
`formula`

method, an optional data source (usually a data frame) in which variables are to be evaluated (see`xyplot`

for details).`data`

should not be specified for the other methods, and is ignored with a warning if it is. - distribution
- A quantile function that takes a vector of probabilities as argument and produces the corresponding quantiles from a theoretical distribution. Possible values are
`qnorm`

,`qunif`

, etc. Distributions with other required arguments need to be provided as user-defined functions (see example with`qt`

). - f.value
- An optional numeric vector of probabilities, quantiles corresponding to which should be plotted. This can also be a function of a single integer (representing sample size) that returns such a numeric vector. A typical value for this argument is the function
`ppoints`

, which is also the S-PLUS default. If specified, the probabilities generated by this function is used for the plotted quantiles, through the`quantile`

function for the sample, and the function specified as the`distribution`

argument for the theoretical distribution.`f.value`

defaults to`NULL`

, which has the effect of using`ppoints`

for the quantiles of the theoretical distribution, but the exact data values for the sample. This is similar to what happens for`qqnorm`

, but different from the S-PLUS default of`f.value=ppoints`

.For large

`x`

, this argument can be used to restrict the number of points plotted. See also the`tails.n`

argument in`panel.qqmath`

. - panel
- A function, called once for each panel, that uses the packet (subset of panel variables) corresponding to the panel to create a display. The default panel function
`panel.qqmath`

is documented separately, and has arguments that can be used to customize its output in various ways. Such arguments can usually be directly supplied to the high-level function. - allow.multiple, outer
- See
`xyplot`

. - auto.key
- See
`xyplot`

. - aspect
- See
`xyplot`

. - prepanel
- See
`xyplot`

. - scales
- See
`xyplot`

. - strip
- See
`xyplot`

. - groups
- See
`xyplot`

. - xlab, ylab
- See
`xyplot`

. - xlim, ylim
- See
`xyplot`

. - drop.unused.levels
- See
`xyplot`

. - lattice.options
- See
`xyplot`

. - default.scales
- See
`xyplot`

. - subscripts
- See
`xyplot`

. - subset
- See
`xyplot`

. - default.prepanel
- Fallback prepanel function. See
`xyplot`

. - ...
- Further arguments. See corresponding entry in
`xyplot`

for non-trivial details.

### Details

`qqmath`

produces Q-Q plots of the given sample against a theoretical distribution. The default behaviour of `qqmath`

is different from the corresponding S-PLUS function, but is similar to `qqnorm`

. See the entry for `f.value`

for specifics.

The implementation details are also different from S-PLUS. In particular, all the important calculations are done by the panel (and prepanel function) and not `qqmath`

itself. In fact, both the arguments `distribution`

and `f.value`

are passed unchanged to the panel and prepanel function. This allows, among other things, display of grouped Q-Q plots, which are often useful. See the help page for `panel.qqmath`

for further details.

This and all other high level Trellis functions have several arguments in common. These are extensively documented only in the help page for `xyplot`

, which should be consulted to learn more detailed usage.

### Values

An object of class `"trellis"`

. The `update`

method can be used to update components of the object and the `print`

method (usually called by default) will plot it on an appropriate plotting device.

### See Also

`xyplot`

, `panel.qqmath`

, `panel.qqmathline`

, `prepanel.qqmathline`

, `Lattice`

, `quantile`

### Examples

qqmath(~ rnorm(100), distribution = function(p) qt(p, df = 10)) qqmath(~ height | voice.part, aspect = "xy", data = singer, prepanel = prepanel.qqmathline, panel = function(x, ...) { panel.qqmathline(x, ...) panel.qqmath(x, ...) }) vp.comb <- factor(sapply(strsplit(as.character(singer$voice.part), split = " "), "[", 1), levels = c("Bass", "Tenor", "Alto", "Soprano")) vp.group <- factor(sapply(strsplit(as.character(singer$voice.part), split = " "), "[", 2)) qqmath(~ height | vp.comb, data = singer, groups = vp.group, auto.key = list(space = "right"), aspect = "xy", prepanel = prepanel.qqmathline, panel = function(x, ...) { panel.qqmathline(x, ...) panel.qqmath(x, ...) })

Documentation reproduced from package lattice, version 0.20-24. License: GPL (>= 2)